goodmorningpapua.com – The development paradigm adopted continues to change. Currently, the paradigm being developed and adopted is human-centered development.
This development paradigm puts humans as the real assets of the nation and creates growth in the economic, social, political, cultural, and environmental fields that encourage the improvement of people’s welfare.
One of standards to determine the success rate of a human-oriented development process is the Human Development Index (IPM).
The HDI was first developed by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) in 1990. Subsequently, it continued to be refined 5 times in 1991, 1995, 2010, 2011, and the last in 2014.
In Indonesia itself, the HDI calculation is carried out by the Central Statistics Agency (BPS) which began in 1996 until now.
Last November, BPS re-released HDI data. According to BPS, Indonesia’s HDI will reach 72.29 points in 2021. This figure increases by 0.35 points or grows by 0.76 percent compared to 2020. This means that human development in Indonesia continues to progress.
In line with Indonesia’s HDI, in the last decade the human development in Papua has also continued to increase. In fact, since 2018, Papua’s human development status has increased from a “low” to a “moderate” level.
However, the COVID-19 pandemic has altered human development achievements in Papua. Papua’s HDI in 2020 had dropped 0.66 percent or 0.40 points compared to 2019 to 60.44.
Nevertheless, the increase in Papua’s HDI has improved again in 2021 in line with improving economic performance which has a positive effect on indicators of real per capita consumption (adjusted).
Since 2010, Papua’s HDI has continued to record growth. Even, the average HDI growth in Papua is always above the national HDI growth.
The impact of the outbreak of the Covid-19 in early 2020, for the first time the growth of Papua’s HDI was below the growth of the National HDI. In fact, Papua’s HDI in 2020 was recorded to have fallen 0.40 points compared to the previous year.
This condition occurred due to the sluggish level of public consumption in the first year of the pandemic which resulted in a decline in one of the indicators forming the HDI, namely adjusted per capita expenditure (PPD).
The HDI itself consists of four main indicators, namely Life Expectancy (UHH), Expected Length of School (HLS), Average Years of Schooling (RLS), and the adjusted per capita expenditure (PPD).
In 2021, in a release, BPS wrote that all indicators forming Papua’s HDI had increased. However, Papua’s HDI growth rate is still below national growth.
This indicates that Papua’s HDI growth is still moving slowly compared to other provinces.
However, this improvement deserves to be appreciated because Papua can rise up again even though it is still in a pandemic condition.
The increase in HDI achievement is inseparable from the increase in the achievements of each component. If an area has a low HDI, it is necessary to look at which indicators are the cause.
Over the past decade, the achievement of each indicator forming the HDI in Papua has always been lower than the national achievement. This condition indicates that human development in each indicator in Papua is still lagging behind other provinces.
From this review, it can be seen that the low HDI achievement of Papua is due to the low achievement of each of the existing indicators. Therefore, the government should pay more attention to improving the quality of human beings in Papua without neglecting other regions.
Various efforts can be made to improve UHH indicators, namely improving community sanitation, reducing maternal and infant mortality rates, reducing early marriage rates, reducing stunting rates, and so on.
Furthermore, one of the efforts that can be made to improve the achievement of HLS and RLS indicators is to promote 12-years compulsory education for both school-age residents and residents who have been beyond the school age by pursuing package C.
Meanwhile, to improve the achievement of PPD indicators, it can be done with programs that can be directly utilized by the community, as has been implemented such as the Family Hope Program (PKH), Rastra, and others.
Author: Rafael Lumban Toruan (Statistics Young Expert BPS Mimika Regency)